Headshot of Dr.Michael  Leopold

Dr. Michael Leopold

Floyd D. and Elisabeth S. Gottwald Professor of Chemistry
  • Profile

    Bioanalytical materials and biosensor development. Study of interactions between proteins and synthetic nanomaterials.

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    • Awards

      Outstanding Faculty Award from the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (22)

      ChemCUR Outstanding Mentorship Award, Division of Chemistry, Council of Undergraduate Research (22)

      Faculty Member of the Year Award, Richmond College Student Government Association (15)

      Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award, The Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation (10)

      Arts & Sciences Outstanding Mentor Award, University of Richmond (09)

      Distinguished Educator Award, University of Richmond (08)

      Omicron Delta Kappa, “Professor of the Year,” University of Richmond (07)

  • Selected Publications
    Journal Articles

    M.M. Sherard,* Jamie S. Kaplan,* J.H. Simpson, K.W. Kittredge, and M.C. Leopold, “Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Halogen Bonding Interactions Involving Fentanyl and Fentanyl Derivatives,” Nanomaterials (Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Gold Nanoparticles, 2nd Ed.) 2024, 14(11), 917; DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14110917

    Ann H. Wemple, Jamie S. Kaplan, and M.C. Leopold, “Mechanistic Elucidation of Nanomaterial-Enhanced First Generation Biosensors Using Probe Voltammetry of an Enzymatic Reaction,” Biosensors 2023, 13(8), 798; DOI: doi.org/10.3390/bios13080798

    M.M. Sherard,*= Q.M. Dang,=* S.C. Reiff,* J.H. Simpson, and M.C. Leopold, “On-Site Detection of Neonicotinoid Pesticides Using Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Halogen Bonding,” ACS Applied Nano Materials 2023, 6, 8367-8381; DOI: doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.3c00618

    Q.M. Dang*, S.T. Gilmore,* K. Lalwani,* R.J. Conk,* J.H. Simpson, and M.C. Leopold, “Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Halogen Bonding Capability – an Avenue for Molecular Detection Schemes” Langmuir 2022, 38(15), 4473-4792.  DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00381.  [Cover Article]

    Q.M. Dang *, J.H. Simpson, C.A. Parish, and M.C. Leopold, “Evaluating Halogen-Bonding Strength as a Function of Molecular Structure Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Computational Analysis,” J. Phys. Chem. A. 2021, 125¸9377-9393.; DOI :1021/acs.jpca.1c07554.

    K. Lalwani*, N. Dinh*, M.C. Leopold, and R. Coppage, “Sintering-Based In-Situ Synthesis and Characterization by TEM of Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Ceramic Glaze Color Control,” Nanomaterials (Special Issue: Preparation and Application of Nanostructured Glass-Ceramics and Nanocomposites) 2021, 11, 2103; DOI: 10.3390/nano11082103.

    Hughes*=, N. Labban*=, G. Conway,* J. Pollock, and M.C. Leopold, “Adaptable Xerogel-Layered Amperometric Biosensor Platforms on Wire Electrodes for Clinically Relevant Measurements,” Sensors (Special Edition: Bio- and Chemical Sensors for Biomedical Applications) 2019, 19(11), 2584; DOI: 10.3390/s19112584

    A.K.A. Jaini,* M.K. Kitimet,* L.B. Hughes,* K.J. Ulep,* M.C. Leopold, and C.A. Parish, “Halogen Bonding Interactions for Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Explosive Detection,” ACS Sensors 2019, 4(2), 389-397.

    Labban,* M. Wayu, C. Steele,* T. Munoz,* J. Pollock, W. Case and M.C. Leopold, “First Generation Amperometric Biosensing of Galactose with Xerogel-Carbon Nanotube Layer-by-layer Assemblies,” Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 42; DOI:10.3390/nano9010042.

    Wayu, M. Pannell,* N. Labban,* W. Case, J. Pollock, and M.C. Leopold, “Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Adsorption Interfaces for Electron Transfer Studies of Galactose Oxidase,” Bioelectrochemistry 2019, 125, 116-126.

    Dinh,* M.C. Leopold, and R. Coppage, “Sintering-Induced Nucleation and Growth of Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Plasmonic Resonance Ceramic Color,” J. Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials 2018, 28, 2770-2778.

    Dinh,* L. DiPasquale,* M.C. Leopold, and R. Coppage, “A Multi-Size Study of Gold Nanoparticle Degradation and Reformation in Ceramic Glazes,” Gold Bulletin 2018, 1-9.

    M. Pannell,* E. Doll,* N. Labban,* M. Wayu, J. Pollock, and M.C. Leopold, “Versatile Sarcosine and Creatinine Biosensing Schemes Utilizing Layer-by-Layer Construction of Carbon Nanotube-Chitosan Composite Films,” J. Electroanalytical Chemistry 2018, 814, 20-30.

    Raef H. Lambertson, Christie Davis, Michael C. Leopold,* and Ryan H. Coppage*  Gold Nanoparticle Colorants as Traditional Ceramic Glaze Alternatives. J Am Ceramics Soc. 2017.

    R.H. Lambertson,* C.A. Lacy, S.D. Gillespie,* M.C. Leopold, and R.H. Coppage, “Gold Nanoparticle Colorants as Traditional Ceramic Glaze Alternatives,” J. American Ceramic Society 2017. [10.1111/jace.14928]

    M.B. Wayu, M.A. Schwarzmann,*= S.D. Gillespie,* and M.C. Leopold, “Enzyme–free Uric Acid Electrochemical Sensors Using β–cyclodextrin Modified Carboxylic Acid Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Mater. Sci. 2017, 52(10), 6050-6062.

    M.B. Wayu, L. DiPasquale,* M. Schwarzmann,* S. Gillespie* and M.C. Leopold, “Electropolymerization of β- Cyclodextrin onto Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Films for Enhanced Selective Detection of Uric Acid,” J. Electroanalytical Chemistry 2016, 783, 192-200.

    K.W. Kittredge, J.T. Malinowski,* K.J. Dye,* R.W. Day,* and M.C. Leopold, “Assembled Nanoparticle Films with Crown Ether Derivatives as Sensors for Metal Ions,” Amer. J. Organic Chemistry 2016, 6(3), 86-92.

    M.B. Wayu, M.J. Pannell,* and M.C. Leopold, “Layered Xerogel Films Incorporating Monolayer Protected Cluster Networks on Platinum Black Modified Electrodes for Enhanced Sensitivity in 1st Generation Uric Acid Biosensing,” ChemElectroChem 2016, 3, 1245-1252.

    G.E. Conway,* R.H. Lambertson,* M.A. Schwarzmann,* M.J. Pannell,* H.W. Kerins,* K.J. Rubenstein,* J.D. Dattelbaum, and M.C. Leopold, “Layer-by-Layer Design and Optimization of Xerogel-Based Amperometric First Generation Biosensors for Uric Acid,” J. Electroanalytical Chemistry 2016, 775, 135-145. (Featured: World Biomedical Frontiers, http://biomedfrontiers.org/newtech-2016-10-21/)

    K. Chen,* G.E. Conway,* G.A. Hamilton,* M.L. Trawick, and M.C. Leopold, “Electropolymerized Layers As Selective Membranes in First Generation Uric Acid Biosensors,” J. Applied Electrochemistry 2016, 45(5), 603-615.

    M.C. Leopold, T.T. Doan,* M.J. Mullaney,* D.J. Tognarelli,* A.F. Loftus,* and C.M. Kidd,* “Electrochemical Characterization of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold Substrates Derived from Thermal Decomposition of Monolayer- Protected Cluster Films,” J. Applied Electrochemistry 2015, 45(10), 1069-1084.

    A.A. Galyean, H.S. Weinberg, R.D. Holbrook, and M.C. Leopold, “Characterization of Engineered Nanoparticles in Natural Waters,” In D. Barceló and M. Farré (Ed.), Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry Series #59, 2012, Elsevier Science, 169-195. [ISBN-13: 9780444563286]

    J.T. Malinowski,* R.W. Day,* Rachel A. Courtney,* S.T. McCarron,* M.C. Leopold, and K.W. Kittredge, “A General Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Substituted Crown Ethers with Pendant Alkyl or Aryl Ligands,” Open Journal of Organic Chemistry 2014, 2(1), 5-9.

    M. Hillyer,* A. Cerel,* L. Finch,* J. Dattelbaum, and M.C. Leopold, “Multi-Technique Quantitative Analysis and Socioeconomic Considerations of Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic in Children’s Toys and Toy Jewelry,” Chemosphere 2014, 108, 205-213.

    A.R. Schmidt,* N.D.T. Nguyen,* and M.C. Leopold, “Nanoparticle Film Assemblies as Platforms for Electrochemical Biosensing – Factors Affecting Amperometric Signal Enhancement of Hydrogen Peroxide,” Langmuir 2013, 29(14), 4574-4583.

    M.H. Freeman,* J.R. Hall,* and M.C. Leopold, “Monolayer-Protected Nanoparticle Doped Xerogels as Functional Components of Amperometric Glucose Biosensors,” Analytical Chemistry 2013, 85(8), 4057-4065.

    T. T. Doan,* R.W. Day,* and M.C. Leopold (2012)  Optical and Electrochemical Properties of Multi-layer Polyelectrolyte Thin Films Incorporating Spherical, Gold Colloid Nanomaterials.  J. Materials Science, 47, 108-120.  

    D. Campbell-Rance, T. Doan,* and M.C. Leopold (2011)  Sweep, Step, Pulse, and Frequency-Based Techniques Applied to Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry at Nanoparticle Interfaces. J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, 662(2), 343-354.

    T.T. Doan,* M. Freeman,* A. Schmidt,* N. Nguyen,* and M.C. Leopold (2011)  Synthesis, Assembly, and Characterization of Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films for Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry.  J. of Visualized Experiments, 56, e3441, [DOI: 10.3791/3441], [URL: http://www.jove.com/details.php?id=3441]

    H. Weinberg, A. Galyean, and M. Leopold (2011)  Evaluating Engineered Nanoparticles in Natural Waters. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 30(1), 72-83.

    C.E. Dowdy* and M.C. Leopold (2010)  Enhanced Electrochemistry of Nanoparticle-Embedded Polyelectrolyte Films: Interfacial Electronic Coupling and Distance Dependence. Thin Solid Films, 519, 790-796.

    T. Doan,* M.L. Vargo,* J.K. Gerig,* C.P. Gulka,* M.L. Trawick, J.D. Dattelbaum and M.C. Leopold (2010)  Electrochemical Investigation of Azurin Thermodynamic and Adsorption Properties at Monolayer-Protected Cluster Film Assemblies-Evidence for a More Homogeneous Adsorption Interface.  J. of Colloid and Interface Science, 352, 50-58.

    C.E. Dowdy* and M.C. Leopold (2010)  Enhanced Electrochemistry of Nanoparticle-Embedded Polyelectrolyte Films: Interfacial Electronic Coupling and Distance Dependence. Thin Solid Films, 519, 790-796.v

    T. Doan,* M.L. Vargo,* J.K. Gerig,* C.P. Gulka,* M.L. Trawick, J.D. Dattelbaum and M.C. Leopold (2010)  Electrochemical Investigation of Azurin Thermodynamic and Adsorption Properties at Monolayer-Protected Cluster Film Assemblies-Evidence for a More Homogeneous Adsorption Interface.  J. of Colloid and Interface Science, 352, 50-58.

    M.L. Vargo,* C.P. Gulka,* J.K. Gerig,* C.M. Manieri,* J.D. Dattelbaum, C.B. Marks, N.T. Lawrence,* M.L. Trawick, and M.C. Leopold (2010)  Distance Dependence of Electron Transfer Kinetics for Azurin Protein Adsorbed to Monolayer Protected Nanoparticle Film Assemblies.  Langmuir, 26(1), 560-569.

    A.A. Galyean,* R.W. Day,* J. Malinowski,* K.W. Kittredge, and M.C. Leopold (2009)  Polyelectrolyte- Linked Film Assemblies of Nanoparticles and Nanoshells : Growth, Stability, and Optical Properties.  J. of Colloid and Interface Science, 331, 532-542.

    A.F. Loftus,* K.P. Reighard,* S.A. Kapourales,* and M.C. Leopold (2008)  Monolayer-Protected Nanoparticle Film Assemblies as Platforms for Controlling Interfacial and Adsorption Properties in Protein Monolayer Electrochemistry.  J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130, 1649-1661. 

    L.E. Russell, R.R. Pompano, K.W. Kittredge and M.C. Leopold (2007) Assembled Nanoparticle Films with Crown Ether-Metal Ion 'Sandwiches' as Sensing Mechanisms for Metal Ions. Journal of Materials Science, v. 42, no. 17, 7100-7108.

    L.E. Russell,* A.A. Galyean,* S.M. Notte,* and M.C. Leopold (2007)  Stable Aqueous Nanoparticle Film Assemblies with Covalent and Charged Polymer Linking Networks.  Langmuir, 23(14), 7446-7471.

    K.W. Kittredge, L.E. Russell,* and M.C. Leopold (2007)  A Series of Vertically Integrated Nanotechnology Experiments for the Undergraduate Curriculum. Chemical Educator, 12(3), 155-158.

    R.R. Pompano,* P.G. Wortley,* L.M. Moatz,* DJ Tognarelli,* K.W. Kittredge, M.C. Leopold (2006)  Crown Ether-Metal ‘Sandwiches’ As Linking Mechanisms in Assembled Nanoparticle Films” Thin Solid Films, 510, 311-319.

    DJ Tognarelli,* R.B. Miller, R.R. Pompano,* A.F. Loftus,* D.J. Sheibley,* and M.C. Leopold (2005) Covalently Networked Monolayer Protected Nanoparticle Films.  Langmuir, 21(24), 11119-11127. 

    D. Sheibley*, D.J. Tognarelli*, R. Szymanik* and M.C. Leopold (2005) Ultra-fast Formation and Characterization of Stable Nanoparticle Film Assemblies. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 15, 491-498.

    M.C. Leopold, R.L. Donkers, D. Georganopoulou, M. Fisher*, F.P. Zamborini, and R.W. Murray (2004) Growth, Conductivity, and Vapor Response Properties of Metal Ion-Carboxylate Linked Nanoparticle Films. Faraday Discuss., 125, 63-76.

    V.L. Jimenz, M.C. Leopold, C. Mazzitelli*, J.W. Jorgenson and R.W. Murray (2003) Reversed-Phase HPLC Separation of Monolayer Protected Gold Nanoclusters. Anal. Chem., 75(2), 199-206.

    D.T. Miles, M.C. Leopold and R.W. Murray (2003) Simulations of Quantized Double Layer Charging Voltammetry of Poly-Disperse and Mono-Disperse Monolayer Protected Clusters.  J. Electroanal. Chem., 554-555, 87-97.

    F.P. Zamborini, L.A. Smart*, M.C. Leopold, and R.W. Murray (2003) Distance-Dependent Electron Hopping Conductivity and Nanoscale Lithography of Chemically-Linked Gold Monolayer-Protected Cluster Films. Analytica Chimica Acta, 496, 3-16.

    R.L. Donkers, M.C. Leopold and R.W. Murray (2002) Growth and Conductivity of Monolayer-Protected Cluster Films - New Strategies. Proceedings of the 201st Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Society.

    F.P. Zamborini, M.C. Leopold, J.F. Hicks, P.J. Kulesza, M.A. Malik and R.W. Murray (2002) Electron Hopping Conductivity and Vapor Sensing Properties of Flexible Network Films of Metal Nanoparticles. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 124(30), 8958-8964.

    M.C. Leopold, J.A. Black* and E.F. Bowden (2002) Influence of Gold Topography on Carboxylic Acid Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers. Langmuir, 18, 978-980.

    M.C. Leopold and E.F. Bowden (2002) The Influence of Gold Substrate Topography on the Voltammetry of Cytochrome c Adsorbed on Carboxylic Acid Terminated Self- Assembled Monolayers. Langmuir, 18(6), 2239-2245.

    A. El Kasmi, M.C. Leopold, R. Galligan*, R.T. Robertson, S.S. Saavedra, K. El Kacemi and E.F. Bowden (2002) Adsorption Immobilization of Cytochrome c on Indium/Tin Oxide (ITO): Electrochemical Evidence for Electron Transfer Induced Conformational Changes. Electrochemistry Communications, 4, 177-181.

    Additional Publications
    Christie Davis, Michael C. Leopold,* and Ryan H. Coppage*. Gold Nanoparticle Colorants as Traditional Ceramic Glaze Alternatives. Provisional Patent Application 62/412,543, Nov 2016.